Note: You will need to use XeTeX instead of regular LaTeX.
You can install it directly:
_$: sudo apt-get install fonts-font-awesome
Alternatively, download it from http://fontawesome.io. Once it is downloaded, extract it and double click in the
FontAwesome.otf file. An installation wizard will appear. You must click on the
Install button and it will be instaled in your system.
Use in XeTeX
You can install fontawesome along some other fonts by installing the
_$: sudo apt-get install texlive-fonts-extra